Download PDF by R. A. Woods (auth.): Biochemical Genetics

By R. A. Woods (auth.)

ISBN-10: 0412224003

ISBN-13: 9780412224003

ISBN-10: 9401539227

ISBN-13: 9789401539227

Writing this moment variation of Biochemical Genetics proved to be more challenging than I had expected. The mounted layout of the sequence intended that the addition of recent fabric used to be made attainable merely by means of the dele­ tion of outdated. because the publication is meant for a pupil viewers, i've got retained the ancient procedure of the 1st version and further new fabric simply whilst it demonstrates a precept extra successfully. on the time of writing, we're witnessing a knowledge explosion caused by the appliance of recombinant DNA expertise to all demeanour of difficulties. i've got further a 6th bankruptcy indicating the effect of this paintings on our techniques of gene constitution. I may still prefer to thank Ed Byard, invoice Evans, Charles Schorn and Ed Ward, colleagues within the Biology division on the college of Winnipeg, and Andrew Spence, a scholar within the division, for his or her reviews at the manuscript of the second one variation, and to reiterate my due to all these within the division of Genetics on the college of Sheffield who commented at the first edition.

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Those which have been studied in detail can be grouped into the following categories: (a) compounds acting on non-replicating DNA; (b) compounds acting on replicating DNA. The effects of chemical mutagens are also classified according to the type of base pair change that they cause. Substitutions of one purine or pyrimidine by another, A ~ G or C ~ T, are known as transitions; replacement of a purine by a pyrimidine or vice versa, A or G ~ T or C, are known as transversions. Considering first compounds which affect non-replicating DNA; nitrous acid deaminates adenine to hypoxanthine, which can pair with cytosine, and cytosine to uracil, which can pair with adenine.

Coli and the mammalian virus SV40. Clearly the codons are used with different frequencies in these five systems. We have now established that the genetic material is DNA (or RNA in some viruses) and that the genetic information is encoded in the linear sequence of bases in DNA. We can now examine the molecular basis of mutation in more detail. 5 0 13 alterations ranging from change in a single base pair to gross changes in chromosomal structure. We shall concentrate on what are known as point mutations, essentially changes affecting one or a few base pairs.

ABB 4. ABC 5. ABC At this point we need to consider how the genetic information encoded in the DNA is transferred to the amino sequence of a protein. We shall not consider the details of protein synthesis since these are dealt with in another volume in this series. Rather we shall focus on the problems of information transfer and see how the cell copes with them. In eukaryotic cells, the DNA is confined to the nucleus whilst protein synthesis takes place on the ribosomes in the cytoplasm. This means that the DNA cannot act as a template for protein synthesis; there must be an intermediate which carries the genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.

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Biochemical Genetics by R. A. Woods (auth.)

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