By Sandra A. Thompson
Wappo is an indigenous language, commonly considered as a language isolate, which was spoken within the Russian River Valley, simply north of San Francisco, California. This reference grammar relies at the speech of Laura Fish Somersal, its final fluent speaker, who died in 1990, and represents the main wide info and grammatical learn ever performed in this language. The grammar makes a speciality of morphosyntax, quite nominal, verbal, and clausal buildings and clause combining styles, from a functional/typological viewpoint.
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Extra resources for A Reference Grammar of Wappo (University of California Publications in Linguistics)
6 Conjoined NPs (75) he k'a 23 ce this and that ‘this and that’ (JS3) Sawyer (1965:106) suggests that the suffix -k'a means ‘together’ and can be found in hopak'a ‘both’ (from hopa ‘two’, ‘each other’). The morpheme he ‘or’ signals phrasal disjunction. 7 Quantifiers Quantifiers generally follow the head noun, as suggested in the order chart shown in (1) at the beginning of chapter 3, but they may also precede: (79) a. kašic' - t - i mul' - i ohak' - šeʔ boy - PL - NOM all - NOM hungry - DUR ‘all the boys are hungry’ (52) 24 The Noun Phrase b.
23) (53) ah leʔa mey - ocow el - taʔ 1SG:NOM many water - root dig - PST ‘I dug lots of swamp-roots’ (191) B. 1 The data make it clear that it is resultant state and 1. Interestingly, reports of past actions without a resulting state seem to be crosslinguistically relatively rarely used in ordinary discourse; it seems that people tend to associate pastness with “closure”. 1 Tense and Aspect 43 While most of these examples with PST express punctual perfective meanings, there is much evidence in our materials that PST is not perfective.
In a few examples in our data, the nominative appears as -ti. 3. Our field notes recurrently record both poleʔi and polaʔi for ‘boy-NOM’; as far as we can tell, they were interchangeable for Laura. 2 Accusative: -ø The accusative, the unmarked case, is used for patients and other patient-like arguments of transitive verbs, for the single argument in an equational sentence, and for all subjects when they occur in dependent clauses (see chapter 6). 3 Dative: -thu The dative case suffix is used for recipients, and to indicate direction.
A Reference Grammar of Wappo (University of California Publications in Linguistics) by Sandra A. Thompson